Cisco Tips & Tricks

July 13, 2007

Tracert – Windows Trace Route utility/command

Filed under: Router — ciscotips @ 2:56 am

Ping and trace are common utilities used by any Network Engineer to troubleshoot Network reachability problems. I have often seen that most of the times we are not interested in domain lookups while issuing tracert command.  Tracert -d is the best option I use to say ” Do not resolve addresses to hostnames”


April 1, 2007

Configuring Switch ports in Campus Environments

Filed under: Router, Switching — ciscotips @ 12:13 am

Last week,  I saw my colleague doing something pretty weird and that kind of initiated me to write this tip which i thought was not a tip initally. Due to Large 6500 48 ports 10/100 cards deployment we need to assign vlans to probably different set of ports. I aw my colleague getting in to each interface and then configuring vlan with switchport access vlan command. I realised that most of us are not aware of cool cisco command to configure similar interfaces in a single go. Here is the command

In a large switch environment, to configure all or

multiple interfaces on a switch with the same configuration

parameters, do the following:

Switch(config)# interface range [ interface { port

range } ]

For example:

Switch(config)#interface range fastEthernet 0/1 – 30

To configure different ports with the same configuration:

Switch(config)#int range fa0/1 , fa0/12 , fa0/13

September 20, 2006

BGP- FAQ from Cisco’s website

Filed under: bgp, cisco, IP Routing, Router — ciscotips @ 8:52 pm

A pretty useful document for better understanding of BGP. 



This document contains frequently asked questions (FAQs) about Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).

Q. How do I configure BGP with the use of a loopback address?A. The use of a loopback interface ensures that the neighbor stays up and is not affected by

malfunctioning hardware.

BGP uses the IP address configured on the physical interface directly connected to the BGP

peer as the source address when it establishes the BGP peering session, by default. Issue the

neighbor <ip address> update−source <interface> command in order to change this

behavior and configure the BGP that speaks to the router to establish peering with the use of a

loopback address as the source address.

Refer to Sample Configuration for iBGP and eBGP With or Without a Loopback Address for

more information.

Q. What is the order of preference of attributes when some or all are

applied to one neighbor in BGP?

A. The order of preference varies based on whether the attributes are applied for inbound

updates or outbound updates.

For inbound updates the order of preference is:

route−map 1.

filter−list 2.

prefix−list, distribute−list 3.

For outbound updates the order of preference is:

prefix−list, distribute−list 1.

filter−list 2.

route−map 3.

Note: The attributes prefix−list and distribute−list are mutually exclusive, and only one command (neighbor prefix−list or neighbor distribute−list) can be applied to each inbound

or outbound direction for a particular neighbor.

Q. What does a next hop of mean in the show ip bgp command


A. A network in the BGP table with a next hop address of means that the network is

locally originated via redistribution of Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) into BGP, or via a

network or aggregate command in the BGP configuration.

Q. What are the well known communities of the BGP community


A. The community attribute is a transitive, optional attribute designed to group destinations in

a certain community and apply certain policies (such as accept, prefer, or redistribute). This

table shows the well known BGP communities.

Community Description
Local-AS Use in confederation scenarios to prevent sending packets outside the local autonomous system (AS).
no-export Do not advertise to external BGP (eBGP) peers. Keep this route within an AS.
no-advertise Do not advertise this route to any peer, internal or external.
none Apply no community attribute when you want to clear the communities associated with a route.
internet Advertise this route to the internet community, and any router that belongs to it.


Q. What formats can I use to configure the BGP community attribute?

A. In Cisco IOS® Software release 12.0 and later, you can configure communities in three

different formats called decimal, hexadecimal, and AA:NN. By default, IOS uses the older

decimal format. In order to configure and display in AA:NN, where the first part is the AS

number and the second part is a 2−byte number, use the ip bgp new−format global

configuration command.

Note: Although the community attribute can be represented in decimal, hexadecimal, or

AA:NN, it is still a 32−bit number. For example, any of these three configuration commands

specify the community 30:20 (AS 30, number 20):

set community 30:20 ¨

set community 0x1E0014 ¨

set community 1966100 ¨

Regardless of which command you use, the community displayed in the router configuration

file and the BGP table is 30:20.

Refer to the Community Attribute section of BGP Case Studies, and Using BGP Community

Values to Control Routing Policy in Upstream Provider Network for more information.

Q. How does BGP behave differently with auto−summary enabled or


A. Auto−summary behavior has changed across Cisco IOS releases. Initially, auto−summarywas enabled by default. However, with Cisco bug ID CSCdu81680 ( registered customers only)

this behavior has changed. In the latest Cisco IOS, auto−summary is disabled by default.

When auto−summary is enabled, it summarizes the locally originated BGP networks to their

classfull boundaries. (Auto−summary is enabled by default in BGP). When auto−summary is

disabled, the routes introduced locally into the BGP table are not summarized to their

classfull boundaries. When a subnet exists in the routing table and the following three

conditions are satisfied, then any subnet of that classfull network in the local routing table

will prompt BGP to install the classfull network into the BGP table.

Classfull network statement for a network in the routing table ¨

Classfull mask on that network statement ¨

Auto−summary enabled ¨

For example, if the subnet in the routing table is mask, and you

configure network under the router bgp command, and auto−summary is enabled,

BGP introduces the classfull network mask in the BGP table.

If these three conditions are not all met, then BGP does not install any entry in the BGP table

unless there is an exact match in the local routing table.

Note: If the AS that performs BGP does not own the complete classfull network, Cisco

recommends that you disable auto−summary using the no auto−summary command under

router bgp.

Q. How can I verify if a BGP router announces its BGP networks and

propagates them to the global BGP mesh?

A. Use these commands to check if the IP blocks are announced to the directly connected


The show ip bgp neighbors [address] advertise−routes command shows which

messages are being sent.


The show ip bgp neighbors [address] routes command shows which messages are

being received.


Note: The show ip bgp neighbors [address] advertise−routes command does not take into

account any outbound policies you may have applied. In future Cisco IOS versions the

command output will be changed to reflect the outbound policies.

In order to verify how the IP blocks get propagated to the global BGP mesh via the directly

connected ISP, log onto a route server on the Internet and look for the BGP entries of the

prefix in the route server.

Q. When and how should I reset a BGP session?

A. Clear a BGP session when you change the inbound/outbound policy for this session. Use

the clear ip bgp x.x.x.x soft out command to clear a BGP session in order to bring outboundpolicy changes into effect. Use the

clear ip bgp x.x.x.x command in order to clear a BGP

session to bring inbound policy changes into effect. If the neighbor has the soft

reconfiguration capability, you can use the clear ip bgp x.x.x.x soft in command.

Note: With Cisco IOS Software Release 12.0 and later, a new BGP Soft Reset Enhancement

feature is introduced. Refer to BGP Soft Reset Enhancement for more information.

Q. When I perform MD5 Authentication for BGP through a PIX, is there

anything special that needs to be done on the PIX?

A. Yes. When a BGP ‘neighbor … password …’ is configured, MD5 authentication is used on

the TCP psuedo−IP header, TCP header, and data (refer to RFC 2385 ). TCP uses this data,

which includes the TCP sequence and ACK numbers, and the BGP neighbor password, to

create a 128−bit hash number. The hash number is included in the packet in a TCP header

option field. By default, the PIX offsets the sequence number by a random value per TCP

flow. On the sending BGP peer, TCP uses the original sequence number to create the 128−bit

MD5 hash number and includes this hash number in the packet. When the receiving BGP peer

gets the packet, TCP uses the PIX modified sequence number to create a 128−bit MD5 hash

number and compares it to the hash number included in the packet. Because the TCP

sequence value was changed by the PIX, the hash is differentTCP on the BGP neighbor

drops the packet and logs an MD5 failed message similar to this:

%TCP−6−BADAUTH: Invalid MD5 digest from to

Use the norandomseq keyword to solve this problem and stop the PIX from offsetting the

TCP sequence number with this command:

static (inside,DMZ−ICE) netmask norandomseq

Q. What is an autonomous system (AS) number and how do I obtain


A. AS numbers are globally unique numbers that are used to identify ASes, and which enable

an AS to exchange exterior routing information between neighboring ASes. An AS is a

connected group of IP networks that adhere to a single and clearly defined routing policy.

There are a limited number of available AS numbers. Therefore, it is important to determine

which sites require unique AS numbers and which do not. Sites that do not require a unique

AS number should use one or more of the AS numbers reserved for private use, which are in

the range from 64512 to 65535. Access the AS Number Registration Services Website to

obtain an AS number.

Q. What is the BGP path selection criteria?

A. BGP path selection criteria is documented in BGP Best Path Selection Algorithm.

Q. What is the difference between always−compare−med and


A. A complete explanation of the differences between these commands is documented in

How the bgp deterministic−med Command Differs from the bgp always−compare−med


Q. Do internal BGP sessions modify the next hop?

A. Internal BGP (iBGP) sessions preserve the next hop attribute learned from eBGP peers.

This is why it is important to have an internal route to the next hop. The BGP route is

otherwise unreachable. In order to make sure you can reach the eBGP next hop, include the

network that the next hop belongs to in the IGP or use the next−hop−self neighbor command

to force the router to advertise itself, rather than the external peer, as the next hop. Refer to

the BGP Nexthop Attribute section of BGP Case Studies for a more detailed explanation.

Q. Do eBGP sessions between confederations modify the next hop?

A. No, eBGP sessions between confederation sub−ASes does not modify the next hop

attribute. All iBGP rules still apply to have the whole AS behave as a single entity. The

metric and local preference values also remain unaltered among confederation eBGP peers.

Refer to the BGP Confederation section of BGP Case Studies for more information about


Q. In eBGP sessions, which IP address is sent as the next hop?

A. In eBGP peering, the next hop is the IP address of the neighbor that announces the route.

However, when the route is advertised on a multi−access media (such as Ethernet or Frame

Relay), the next hop is usually the IP address of the router interface connected to that media,

which originated the route. Refer to the BGP Nexthop Attribute of BGP Case Studies for a

more detailed explanation.

Q. Does the route reflector change the next hop attribute of a reflected


A. By default, the next hop attribute is not changed when a prefix is reflected by route reflector. However, you can use the neighbor next−hop−self command to change the

attribute of the next hop for prefixes reflected from an eBGP peer to any route reflector client.

Q. How can I announce a prefix conditionally to one ISP only when I lose

the connection to my primary ISP?

A. BGP advertises routes from its BGP table to external peers by default. The BGP

conditional advertisement feature provides additional control of route advertisement

depending on the existence of other prefixes in the BGP table. Normally, routes are

propagated regardless of the existence of a different path. The BGP conditional advertisement

feature uses the non−exist−map and advertise−map configuration commands to track routes

by the route prefix. If a route prefix is not present in the non−exist−map command, the routespecified by the

advertise−map command is announced. Refer to the Configuring BGP

Conditional Advertisement section of Configuring BGP for more information.

Q. How much memory should I have in my router to receive the

complete BGP routing table from my ISP?

A. The amount of memory required to store BGP routes depends on many factors, such as the

router, the number of alternate paths available, route dampening, community, the number of

maximum paths configured, BGP attributes, and VPN configurations. Without knowledge of

these parameters it is difficult to calculate the amount of memory required to store a certain

number of BGP routes. Cisco typically recommends a minimum of 128 MB of RAM in the

router to store a complete global BGP routing table from one BGP peer. However, it is

important to understand ways to reduce memory consumption and achieve optimal routing

without the need to receive the complete Internet routing table. Refer to Achieve Optimal

Routing and Reduce BGP Memory Consumption for more detailed information.

Q. What are the benefits of configuring BGP peer groups?

A. The major benefit of specifying a BGP peer group is that it reduces the amount of system

resources (CPU and memory) used in an update generation. It also simplifies BGP

configuration since it allows the routing table to be checked only once, and updates to be

replicated to all other in−sync peer group members. Depending on the number of peer group

members, the number of prefixes in the table, and the number of prefixes advertised, this can

significantly reduce the load. Cisco recommends that you group together peers with identical

outbound announcement policies. Refer to BGP Peer Groups for more detailed information.

Q. What is synchronization, and how does it influence BGP routes

installed in the IP routing table?

A. If your AS passes traffic from another AS to a third AS, BGP should not advertise a route

before all routers in your AS learn about the route via IGP. BGP waits until IGP propagates

the route within the AS and then advertises it to external peers. A BGP router with

synchronization enabled does not install iBGP learned routes into its routing table if it is not

able to validate those routes in its IGP. Disabling synchronization using the no synchronization command under router bgp prevents BGP from validating iBGP routes in

IGP. Refer to BGP Case Studies: Synchronization for a more detailed explanation.

Q. How do I know which Cisco IOS software release supports a

particular BGP feature?

A. Use the Cisco IOS Software Advisor ( registered customers only) to quickly find which Cisco

IOS software release supports your feature.

Q. How can I set the Multi Exit Discriminator (MED) value on prefixes

advertised to eBGP neighbors to match the IGP next hop metric?

A. The set metric−type internal route−map configuration command causes BGP to

advertise a MED that corresponds to the IGP metric associated with the next hop of the route.

This command is available in Cisco IOS Software Release 10.3 and later.

Q. What is the default BGP ConnectRetry timer, and is it possible to tune

the BGP ConnectRetry timer?

A. The default BGP ConnectRetry timer is 120 seconds. Only after this time passes does the

BGP process check to see if the passive TCP session is established. If the passive TCP

session is not established, then the BGP process starts a new active TCP attempt to connect to

the remote BGP speaker. During this idle 120 seconds of the ConnectRetry timer, the remote

BGP peer can establish a BGP session to it. Presently the Cisco IOS ConnectRetry timer

cannot be changed from its default of 120 seconds.

Q. What does r RIB−Failure mean in the show ip bgp command output?

R1> show ip bgp

BGP table version is 5, local router ID is

Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i − internal,

r RIB−failure

Origin codes: i − IGP, e − EGP, ? − incomplete

Network Next Hop Metric LocPrf Weight Path

r> 0 130 0 30 i

*> 0 125 0 30 i

When BGP tries to install the bestpath prefix into Routing Information Base (RIB) (for

example, the IP Routing table), RIB might reject the BGP route due to any of these reasons:

Route with better administrative distance already present in IGP. For example, if a

static route already exists in IP Routing table.


Memory failure. ¨

The number of routes in VPN routing/forwarding (VRF) exceeds the route−limit

configured under the VRF instance.


In such cases, the prefixes that are rejected for these reasons are identified by r RIB Failure in the show ip bgp command output and are not advertised to the peers. This

feature was first made available in Cisco IOS Software Release 12.2(08.05)T.

Q. How can I redistribute internal BGP (iBGP) learned default−route

( route into EIGRP/OSPF/IS−IS?

A. The redistribution of iBGP routes into Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP)Enhanced Interior

Gateway Routing Protocol/Open Shortest Path First/Intermediate System−to−Intermediate

System (EIGRP/OSPF/IS−IS)can cause routing loops within the Autonomous System,

which is not recommended. By default, iBGP redistribution into IGP is disabled. Use the bgpredistribute−internal command to enable redistribution of iBGP routes into IGP.

Precautions should be taken to redistribute specific routes using route−maps into IGP. A

sample configuration for redistributing a iBGP learned default route into EIGRP is

shown in this output. Configurations for OSPF/IS−IS are similar.

router bgp 65345


bgp redistribute−internal


router eigrp 10


redistribute bgp 65345 route−map check−def


ip prefix−list def−route seq 5 permit


route−map check−def permit 10

match ip address prefix−list def−route


September 18, 2006

BGP quick tips

Filed under: bgp, IP Routing, Router — ciscotips @ 2:21 am

There are three most important keywords which we should have in mind while setting up BGP neighbor relationship. Even sometimes when we have successful BGP relationship, we are not able to see routes in the routing table. Following are the three important keywords.

1)ebgp-multihop :- In EBGP, neighbor relationships are only formed if we have directly connected networks. We would require to use ebgp-multihop  keyword with neighbor statement so that neighbors which are not directly connected can form relationship with each other. We need to specify a number with ebgp-multihop keyword, number can be between 1-255. This number represents how many hop counts is the router away.

2)update-source. We need to specify the interface which will be used to update neighbor table incase routers are not directly connected. Without update-source we will not be able to form BGP neighbor relationships. update-source keyword will update the interface which will be used to form neighbor relationship. see configuration example below for better understanding.

3) next-hop-self:- When ebgp relation replicates , next hop always changes.IBGP  routers only connected with other ibgp routers in same AS will not be able to talk with routers outside the AS, if they are not directly connected with each other. We would require a next-hop-self keyword in the ibgp router which is directly connected with ebgp neighbor so that other router in same AS (IBGP) can talk with ebgp routers. Refer to configuration examples below:-

Lets assume that we have three routers and we have to setup a ebgp relationship in between them.  Router A ( AS :- 34 Serial0 , loopback0 , RouterB ( AS 34, loopback0 , Serial0 , Serial1, RouterC ( AS 400 , loopback0, Serial0

Lets start configuring Router A

router BGP 34 –> As soon as we type 34 BGP process will start in the background
neighbor remote-as 34  –> Bgp will know that this is IBGP looking at  AS

Router B

router BGP 34
neighbor remote-as 34
neighbor remote-as 400  –> neighbor relationship with ebgp peer.
neighbor remote-as 400
neighbor ebgp-multihop 255  –>  255 is number of hops that neighbor is away. we can use any number from 1-255, it can be more specific by using 1 or 2 but my personal fav is 255 as it avoids confusion.
neighbor update-source loopback 0 –> Here is the idea, when its sourcing the packets its sourcing it from serial interface, we need to inform the otherside that source interface is not serial interface, it is looback interface so that it cann match ip ip’s with the right interface and form neighbor relationship.

we would require to do similar configuration on router c

router bgp 400
neighbor remote-as 34
neighbor remote-as 34
neighbor ebgp-multihop 255
neighbor update-source loopback 0

Now after forming the neighbro relationships we’ll use network commands to add neighbors in routing table. Network command in BGP is bit different then Network command in other routing protocols. we ‘ll  need to define mask keywork with network command in order to advertise clasless network where as if it is using a default mask we can ignore the same.


Router C

router bgp 400
neighbor mask
note:- i cannot use network command without mask keyword as it will treat this as  class B network. For any customised subnetting scheme we ‘ll need to specify subnet mask with mask keyword in network command.

Even after configuring above, Router A will not be able to talk with Router C. If we will use show ip bgp command on Router A. we’ll see that it has a valid route for Router C but it will not be able to ping router c. This is because next hop will be which is not directly connected with Router A. . First thing which will come in our mind is that rule of synchronisation has taken in to effect but even after disabling synchronisation between router a and router B, Router C will not be reachable. we would need a special command on Router B so that all IBGP peers of AS 34 can talk with AS 400

To troubleshoot this we can use “debug ip bgp updates” but before using this debug we should use ” clear ip bgp *” command. We’ll see that it will show us that there is no valid path for networks in Router C. Next hop should be Router B but in the updates it will show next hp as router c. to avoid the we will use next-hop self keyword in Router B.

Router B

router bgp 34

neighbor next-hop-self

When Router B is sending an update to Router A it is sending the update without changging its next hop so router A will receive next hop as Router C which is not directly connected. To avoid this we will use next-hop-self command in Router B so that router A should receve valid route.


July 6, 2006

CCIE notes for EIGRP

Filed under: IP Routing, Router, [EIGRP] — ciscotips @ 6:20 pm

At last i have made up my mind to sit for ccie R&S written by early August. I am starting a tips & tricks section for dynamic routing protocols. I will start with EIGRP and then gradually move towards OSPF & BGP.

EIGRP uses DUAL ( Diffused update algorithm). Now what is DUAL? This fancy name is being used by cisco as a kind of marketing tool. Cisco calls EIGRP as a hybrid protocol. It has features of both distance vector & link state protocol. EIGRP topology table will always keep a feasible successor. Feasible successor is nothing but a backup route.

Lets say we have two links. One is 56k & other is a T1 link. Now EIGRP topology table will contain t1 as a primary route and 56k link as a feasible route. The difference between EIGRP and other dynamic routing protocols is that due to the feaible successor already in the topology table,Convergence time is very fast.

Incase of T1 link failiure, in fraction of seconds 56k link will become a primary route for EIGRP. This is the magic of DUAL, in other protocols like OSPF it will take atleast 50 secs to converge as it has to do everything from the scratch.

-EIGRP route metrics :- All of us have known about k values in EIGRP. but what are ‘k’ values?K values are the meterics being used in EIGRP to influence routes. routes in EIGRP can be influenced with 5 different ‘k’ values. k1,k2,k3,k4 & k5. Bandwidth and delay are the default metrics in EIGRP but we have load, reliability and MTU which can also influence routes in EIGRP. Cisco doesn’t recommend enabling other ‘k’ values like load. the reason behind that is that it can increase cpu cycles and thus can slow down the whole process.

IF we have two links with equal cost (bandwidth), both eigrp & ospf will automatically load balance between the two links. Incase we need to prefer one link over other, we will have to change the bandwidth statement ( i.e. we ‘ll lie to the router) to a lower bandwidth so that the other link will be preffered over this link. This practice will definitely resolve our routing problem but it can lead to other problems. bandwidth statement is not only used by routing protocols but also used by qos for evaluating/priortizing traffic. changing bandwidth can have adverse effects.

In eigrp we have a feature called delay we can simply go under interface configuration mode and change delay. its a cool feature as even if bandwidth is same for 2 interfaces, delay will help us in making one link as primary and other secondary by simply increasing value of delay.
Now its a time for EIGRP tip. Not many people know about this command but using this command we can really do wonders in EIGRP.

metric weights tos k1 k2 k3 k4 k5

where k1 is bandwidth, k2 is load, k3 is delay, k4 is reliability and k5 is MTU. This command is used under router configuration mode.
default usage of this commmand is meteric weights 0 1 0 1 0 0. by default only bandwidth and delay is accounted for metric calculation.

Use this command to alter the default behavior of EIGRP routing and metric computation and allow the tuning of the EIGRP metric calculation for a particular type of service (ToS).

If k5 equals 0, the composite EIGRP metric is computed according to the following formula:

metric = [k1 * bandwidth + (k2 * bandwidth)/(256 – load) + k3 * delay]

If k5 does not equal zero, an additional operation is performed:

metric = metric * [k5/(reliability + k4)]

Bandwidth is inverse minimum bandwidth of the path in BPS scaled by a factor of 2.56 * 1012. The range is from a 1200-bps line to 10 terabits per second.

Delay is in units of 10 microseconds. The range of delay is from 10 microseconds to 168 seconds. A delay of all ones indicates that the network is unreachable.

The delay parameter is stored in a 32-bit field, in increments of 39.1 nanoseconds. The range of delay is from 1 (39.1 nanoseconds) to hexadecimal FFFFFFFF (decimal 4,294,967,040 nanoseconds). A delay of all ones (that is, a delay of hexadecimal FFFFFFFF) indicates that the network is unreachable.

Troubleshooting EIGRP

Cisco has set of flow charts which I have personally found the best way to troubleshoot EIGRP.

Summarising EIGRP routes:-

We can use following command to summarise EIGRP routes. Under interface config mode, issue following command

ip summary address eigrp x.x.x.x subnet-mask.


EIGRP has a faster convergence time as compare to OSPF. Administrative distance for internal EIGRP is 90 and that of external EIGRP is 170.

OSPF is still widely used dynamic protocol as compare to EIGRP, this is because EIGRP is cisco properietory and thus runs only on cisco routers where as OSPF is vendor independent routing protocol.



Subnet Mask Cheat Sheet

Filed under: Router — ciscotips @ 3:25 pm

Subnet Cheat Sheet




Amount of a Class C















































June 26, 2006

Configuring a Cisco router as a terminal server

Filed under: Router — ciscotips @ 2:34 pm

when you have a home lab you want to have console connectivity to all your routers at the same time. By using a terminal server (2509-2512 router range) we can accomplish this.

To use a terminal server we need a 2509/2510 8 lines or 2511/2512 16 lines router and 1 or 2 octal cables.
The first thing we do is create a loopback interface that will be used for the reverse telnet sessions from the other devices.
Router(config)#interface loopback0
Router(config-if)#ip address

Now we add the devices that are connected to this router [octable cable to each console port]
Router(config)#ip host hostname 2001
Router(config)#ip host hostname2 2002

The previous commands lets you use the hostname of the device to access it on it's console port. The portnumber is made of the following 200x where x is the nr on the octal cable going to that device. Depending on the type of router you use for terminal server you can have either 8 or 16 devices hanging of it.

Now that the router is configured we use the following commands to navigate.
– to access a device
telnet 2001

– to switch between active sessions
ctrl-shift-6-x will bring you back to terminal server
show sessions will display the active sessions
entering a number of a session will let you access that session

– to disconnect a session
use the disconnect command

June 16, 2006

WiFi Security Standards & Best Practices

Filed under: Router, security, wifi — ciscotips @ 2:20 pm

Ramneek Khurana sent me following post for Wifi Best practices.

Latest Wifi security standards WPA2

In 2004, the Wi-Fi Alliance introduced Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2™), the second generation of WPA security. Like WPA, WPA2 provides enterprise and home Wi-Fi users with a high level of assurance that their data will remain protected and that only authorized users can access their wireless networks. WPA2 is based on the final IEEE 802.11i amendment to the 802.11 standard ratified in June 2004. WPA2 uses the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) for data encryption and is eligible for FIPS (Federal Information Processing Standards) 140-2 compliance.WPA2 supports IEEE 802.1X/EAP authentication or PSK technology. It also includes a new advanced encryption mechanism using the Counter-Mode/CBC-MAC Protocol (CCMP) called the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).

WPA2 Security Advantage

When compared with the IEEE 802.11 security standard using 40-bit WEP with no dynamic keying, TKIP and AES make it far more difficult-if not impossible-for a would-be intruder to break into a Wi-Fi network. By greatly expanding the size of keys and number of keys in use, creating an integrity checking mechanism, using a strong encryption cipher; and imposing replay protection, AES and TKIP greatly increase the strength and complexity of wireless encryption. Together with the IEEE 802.1X/EAP mutual authentication framework, TKIP and AES magnify the complexity and difficulty involved in decoding data on a Wi-Fi network—making the Wi-Fi network secure.

AP side configs for WPA2


interface Dot11Radio0


encryption mode ciphers aes-ccm

Wifi Aps management security best practices

1.)     Disable the wifi management via radio interfaces, management should be allowed only via Ethernet interface on AP.

2.)     Apply VTY filters to make sure the management interfaces are accessible only via management VLANs
3.)     Disable the http/https service on AP.  

June 12, 2006

IANA Private Ip Address range & Auditing Router Modules in one shot

Filed under: Router — ciscotips @ 3:29 pm

This week I am incorporating two posts sent to me by Virinder S Jamnal. We can call this Mr Jamnal's column also
Here it goes 

1)      I am starting with very basic, can u please post the list of IANA private ip address range if it is not there already.

          The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) reserved the following address space for private networks: through 16,777,214 hosts through 1,048,574 hosts through 65,534 hosts

2)      There is a similar post about auditing router interfaces, but this is one is more specific about auditing all router modules in one shot. I have got it from packet.

              router#show diag | include IC|NM-|Serial|FRU

PCB Serial Number : FOC09162SSN

Chassis Serial Number : FTX0926A00R

Product (FRU) Number : CISCO3845

PCB Serial Number : FOC09182ET4

Product (FRU) Number : CISCO3845-MB

Chassis Serial Number : FTX0926A00R

WIC Slot 0:

VIC2 – BRI-NT/TE Voice daughter card (2 port)

PCB Serial Number : FOC091537HG

Product (FRU) Number : VIC2-2BRI-NT/TE=

WIC Slot 1:

VIC2 – BRI-NT/TE Voice daughter card (2 port)

PCB Serial Number : FOC0910103X

Product (FRU) Number : VIC2-2BRI-NT/TE=

WIC Slot 2:

PCB Serial Number : FOC092150QX

Product (FRU) Number : HWIC-4ESW

NM-1T3/E3 (clear/subrate) Port adapter, 1 port

PCB Serial Number : FOC09140Y4S

Product (FRU) Number : NM-1T3/E3=

June 7, 2006

How to block skype

Filed under: Access-lists, QOS, Router, security — ciscotips @ 4:36 am

On April 4th 2006, Cisco released IOS version 12.4 (4) T. Cisco introduced much awaited Skype classification in NBAR . So now with simple policy you can block skype. Skype can be blocked in a similar way as we use to block kazza,limewire and other p2p applications.


NBAR configuration to drop Skype packets

class−map match−any p2p
match protocol skype

policy−map block−p2p
class p2p

int FastEthernet0
description PIX−facing interface
service−policy input block−p2p

If you are unsure about the bandwidth eating applications being used in your organisation. you can access the interface connected to the Internet and configure following command

ip nbar protocol-discovery.

This will enable nbar discovery on your router.

Use following command:-

show ip nbar protocol-discovery stats bit-rate top-n 10

it will show you top 10 bandwidth eating applications being used by the users. Now you will be able to block/restrict traffic with appropriate QoS policy.

we can also use ip nbar port-map command to look for the protocol or protocol name, using a port number or numbers other than the well-known Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)-assigned) port numbers.

Usage as per cisco:-
ip nbar port-map protocol-name [tcp | udp] port-number

Up to 16 ports can be specified with this command. Port number values can range from 0 to 65535

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